Evoluutio

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Viestejä45973
Liittynyt3.9.2015

tuli vaan mieleen evoluutiosta että tuleeko sitä vielä tapahtumaan, eli voiko esim ihmisellä olla miljoonien vuosien päästä siivet?

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Kommentit (213)

Vierailija
Doctor
tuli vaan mieleen evoluutiosta että tuleeko sitä vielä tapahtumaan, eli voiko esim ihmisellä olla miljoonien vuosien päästä siivet?

Sitä tapahtuu koko ajan ja tulee myös tapahtumaan. En nyt näe mitään ihmeellisempää tarvetta elossasäilymisen kannalta ihmisen siiville, joten tuskinpa niin tapahtuu.

Jossain oli joskus että millaiset ihmisen mittasuhteiden tulisi olla mikäli ihminen voisi lentää. Oli aika epärealistiset. Samassa jutussa oli myös millaiseksi ihmisen evoluutio tätä menoa olisi menossa, näytti melko humanoidimaiselta se tyyppi. Missäköhän tuo oli..

Vierailija
Deinonychus antirrhopus
Mitäs luonnonvalintaa meihin tätä nykyä ylipäätään kohdistuu muualla kuin Afrikassa?

Varmasti suomessakin tietyntyyppiset ihmiset saavat enemmän jälkeläisiä kuin muut. Esimerkiksi lestadiolaiset levittävät perimäänsä aika vauhdilla. Onko tulevaisuudessa kaikilla lestadiolaisuusgeenit?

Vierailija

Vaikka lestadiolaisuus ei ole suoraan geneettisesti sidottu ominaisuus(vaikka lestojen lapset muistuttavatkin tässä suhteessa tilastollisesti enemmän vanhempiaan kuin satunnaisesti muutoin valittua.)
Voinemme silti sanoa että ne geenit, jotka aikaansaisivat uskontopakon (kääntyisi uskontoihin, siinä sivussa lestadiolaisiksi) ja ne geenit jotka johtavat siihen että vanhempien auktoriteettia seurataan miettimättä(lestadiolaiset kuitenkin korvaavat ne muut uskonnot lisääntymisvoimallaan), omaisivat selvän ja havaittavan fittness -edun. Juuri tälläiset syyt(valintapaineet) voivat tosiaan varsin hyvin johtaa uskonnollisten tuntemuksien, voimakkaidenkin, muodostumiseen valtaosalle väestöä.(Entä sitten vaikka geeni pakottaisi kantajansa toimimaan täysin typerästi? Hyödyttäisi kuitenkin fittnessiä, joka laskee jälkeläisiä eikä sitä onko toiminta kaikissa suhteissa viisasta. Perhosilla on yleensä fiksu tapa lentää kohti valoa, ne vain joskus harvoin lentävät liekkeihin sen johdosta.)

Lisäksi voidaan miettiä mitä tekisi uusi alleeli, joka kokisi seksin ja uskonnollisuuden liittymisen ja estäisi jälkeläisten tuhoamisen abortin kautta(abortti on modernia valintapainetta, ei ole ennen ollut vaihtoehto) Periaatteessa peloittavan mahdollista. Miettikää nyt, mikä voisi olla lähempänä "lestageeniä"?

Vierailija
Doctor
tuli vaan mieleen evoluutiosta että tuleeko sitä vielä tapahtumaan, eli voiko esim ihmisellä olla miljoonien vuosien päästä siivet?

Evoluutiota ei tapahdu. Ei ole kehitteillä olevia osia. Ihminen on valmis, vaikkakin syntiinlankeemuksen takia epätäydellinen.

Vierailija

Esitä empiiriset todisteet tuolle syntiinlankeemukselle ja sille, ettei evoluutiota tapahdu. Älä luulekaan, että jättäisin huomioimatta sen, ettet kommentoinut viime keskustelussa tiettyä vaihetta pidemmälle. Syitä ei tarvinne edes arvata.
Ei ole sellaista käsitettä olemassakaan kuin "kehitteillä oleva osa". Kaikki kehon osat ovat valmiita kullakin hetkellä siinä käytössä, mihin niitä juuri tietyissä vaiheissa tarvitaan, vaikka sitä pidettäisiin myöhemmin "välimuotona".

Sanoin jo aikaisemmin, ettet selvästikään ajattele sen pidemmälle kuin haluat. Sitä empiria nyt tukee, kuten jokainen voi lukea.

Vierailija
Deinonychus antirrhopus
Esitä empiiriset todisteet tuolle syntiinlankeemukselle ja sille, ettei evoluutiota tapahdu. Älä luulekaan, että jättäisin huomioimatta sen, ettet kommentoinut viime keskustelussa tiettyä vaihetta pidemmälle. Syitä ei tarvinne edes arvata.
Ei ole sellaista käsitettä olemassakaan kuin "kehitteillä oleva osa". Kaikki kehon osat ovat valmiita kullakin hetkellä siinä käytössä, mihin niitä juuri tietyissä vaiheissa tarvitaan, vaikka sitä pidettäisiin myöhemmin "välimuotona".

Sanoin jo aikaisemmin, ettet selvästikään ajattele sen pidemmälle kuin haluat. Sitä empiria nyt tukee, kuten jokainen voi lukea.


Empiirinen todiste on se ettet osoita kehitteillä olevaa osaa. Evoon uskovan luulisi voivan esittää sellaisen. Itse asiassa silloinhan kaikkien osien pitäisi kehittyä...

Vierailija
teijoster
Deinonychus antirrhopus
Esitä empiiriset todisteet tuolle syntiinlankeemukselle ja sille, ettei evoluutiota tapahdu. Älä luulekaan, että jättäisin huomioimatta sen, ettet kommentoinut viime keskustelussa tiettyä vaihetta pidemmälle. Syitä ei tarvinne edes arvata.
Ei ole sellaista käsitettä olemassakaan kuin "kehitteillä oleva osa". Kaikki kehon osat ovat valmiita kullakin hetkellä siinä käytössä, mihin niitä juuri tietyissä vaiheissa tarvitaan, vaikka sitä pidettäisiin myöhemmin "välimuotona".

Sanoin jo aikaisemmin, ettet selvästikään ajattele sen pidemmälle kuin haluat. Sitä empiria nyt tukee, kuten jokainen voi lukea.


Empiirinen todiste on se ettet osoita kehitteillä olevaa osaa. Evoon uskovan luulisi voivan esittää sellaisen. Itse asiassa silloinhan kaikkien osien pitäisi kehittyä...

Kaikki osathan kehittyvät. Luonnonvalinnan valintapaine vain on melko hajanainen länsimaisessa yhteiskunnassa, mikäli sitä on lähes ollenkaan. Seksuaalivalinnan luulisi nyky-yhteiskunnassa painavan enemmän. Ja muiden, ehkä vielä tuntemattomien evoluutiota ohjaavien tekijöiden.

Vierailija

Ongelmana taitaa vain olla se, että evoluution vastustajat siirtävät maaliaan, eli vaatimuksiaan siitä minkälainen asia olisi todiste evoluutiolle.
Eli "käy okapit"; ensin vaaditaan yhtä ja sitten se ei kelpaa ja vaaditaankin toista. Tuo nyt on vain tuore esimerkki tavallisesta ilmiöstä, tosin harvinaisen selvä tapaus, jopa lapsi tajuaa ilman selittämistä.

Evoluutiossa ei itse asiassa tarvitse muuttua kaikki ominaisuudet kerralla, se on pikemminkin malli vähittäisistä muutoksista jotka kasautuessaan... (ja mikroevoluutio on todistettu ilmiö, eikä niitä "kasautumisesteitä ole todistettu", kuten ei muuten syntiinlankeemustakaan ole.. joten itse asiassa kääntyy tämä "kun vastustajat ei keksi mallia" ikävästi teijosterin omiin jalkoihin)

Vierailija
aquamarineOnion
teijoster
Deinonychus antirrhopus
Esitä empiiriset todisteet tuolle syntiinlankeemukselle ja sille, ettei evoluutiota tapahdu. Älä luulekaan, että jättäisin huomioimatta sen, ettet kommentoinut viime keskustelussa tiettyä vaihetta pidemmälle. Syitä ei tarvinne edes arvata.
Ei ole sellaista käsitettä olemassakaan kuin "kehitteillä oleva osa". Kaikki kehon osat ovat valmiita kullakin hetkellä siinä käytössä, mihin niitä juuri tietyissä vaiheissa tarvitaan, vaikka sitä pidettäisiin myöhemmin "välimuotona".

Sanoin jo aikaisemmin, ettet selvästikään ajattele sen pidemmälle kuin haluat. Sitä empiria nyt tukee, kuten jokainen voi lukea.


Empiirinen todiste on se ettet osoita kehitteillä olevaa osaa. Evoon uskovan luulisi voivan esittää sellaisen. Itse asiassa silloinhan kaikkien osien pitäisi kehittyä...



Kaikki osathan kehittyvät.

Kretiinit eivät kehity.

Vierailija
squirrel
Ongelmana taitaa vain olla se, että evoluution vastustajat siirtävät maaliaan, eli vaatimuksiaan siitä minkälainen asia olisi todiste evoluutiolle.
Eli "käy okapit"; ensin vaaditaan yhtä ja sitten se ei kelpaa ja vaaditaankin toista. Tuo nyt on vain tuore esimerkki tavallisesta ilmiöstä, tosin harvinaisen selvä tapaus, jopa lapsi tajuaa ilman selittämistä.

Evoluutiossa ei itse asiassa tarvitse muuttua kaikki ominaisuudet kerralla, se on pikemminkin malli vähittäisistä muutoksista jotka kasautuessaan... (ja mikroevoluutio on todistettu ilmiö, eikä niitä "kasautumisesteitä ole todistettu", kuten ei muuten syntiinlankeemustakaan ole.. joten itse asiassa kääntyy tämä "kun vastustajat ei keksi mallia" ikävästi teijosterin omiin jalkoihin)


Oravan filosofiset jaaritukset eivät esittäneet yhtään keskeneräistä osaa. Esim. sydän? Onko sinne kenties kehittymässä pari kammiota lisää. Entäpä kolmas silmä selässä? On kait teillä jotain esittää!

Vierailija
teijoster
squirrel
Ongelmana taitaa vain olla se, että evoluution vastustajat siirtävät maaliaan, eli vaatimuksiaan siitä minkälainen asia olisi todiste evoluutiolle.
Eli "käy okapit"; ensin vaaditaan yhtä ja sitten se ei kelpaa ja vaaditaankin toista. Tuo nyt on vain tuore esimerkki tavallisesta ilmiöstä, tosin harvinaisen selvä tapaus, jopa lapsi tajuaa ilman selittämistä.

Evoluutiossa ei itse asiassa tarvitse muuttua kaikki ominaisuudet kerralla, se on pikemminkin malli vähittäisistä muutoksista jotka kasautuessaan... (ja mikroevoluutio on todistettu ilmiö, eikä niitä "kasautumisesteitä ole todistettu", kuten ei muuten syntiinlankeemustakaan ole.. joten itse asiassa kääntyy tämä "kun vastustajat ei keksi mallia" ikävästi teijosterin omiin jalkoihin)


Oravan filosofiset jaaritukset eivät esittäneet yhtään keskeneräistä osaa. Esim. sydän? Onko sinne kenties kehittymässä pari kammiota lisää. Entäpä kolmas silmä selässä? On kait teillä jotain esittää!

Entäpä vaikkapa kyky liuottaa veritulppa sepelvaltimossa.

Vierailija

Yhtä konkreettisia esimerkkejä kuin teijoster esitti syntiinlankeemuksestaan..

Kreationistille on turha selittää kalojen yksinkertaisesta sydänpumppurakenteesta, saati sydänjatkumosta sammakoista liskoihin, jossa havaittavissa väliseinän kasvua siten että lopputuloksena on nisäkkään mallinen sydän(saati siitä että sopii yhteen muiden rakenteiden muodostaman kehitysjärjestyspuiden kanssa...) Koska jos teijosterille osoittaisi kädestä pitäen jonkin esimerkin jossa jotain syntyy vähittäin, labrassa tai luonnossa, niin on vain todiste mikroevoluutiosta.

En yksinkertaisesti vaivaudu vastaamaan idioottisille maalinsiirtäjille, silloinkin kun viimeksi jaksoin, jätit osoittamatta välimuotofossiililistaani "ei evoluutioksi".

Listani kun oli seuraavanlainen(milloin teijoster on esittänyt yhtä monta lähdettä?, milloin teijoster on yleensä ottaen laittanut eicopypastetyylillä kirjoitettua tekstiä jossa olisi lähteitä tai ja joka olisi enemmän kuin muutaman virkkeen epämääräinen huomautus -> Kumpi meistä ei esitä TODISTEITA? Vaikuttaa siltä että vain toinen meistä jaksaa turvautua tieteenfilosofiaan ja todisteisiin SIITÄ HUOLIMATTA että toisen ajattelukyky ja halu keskusteluun on sillä tasolla että kykenee vain huonoon ja perusteettomaan vittuiluun ja kompastelee siinä sivussa okapeihinsa -ja jatkaa kuin mitään ei olisi ikinä tapahtunut.):


Panderichthys Ahlberg et al. (1996)
“Intermediate form fish/amphibian in the series Eustenopteron (fish –380 Ma) – Panderichthys – Acanthostega...” (1)

Pederpes
Clack (2002)
“Intermediate grade between primary aquatic Upper Devonian amphibians and early tetrapods”
(1)

Claudiosaurus McGowan (1984) ;
”…neatly filled the gap between the terrestrial Eosuchia and the aquatic Nothosauria.”
“We are therefore able to trace an evolutionary pathway from fully terrestrial reptiles to the fully aquatic, and highly specialized plesiosaurs.”
”...we do have compelling evidence that the plesiosaurs did evolve from a terrestrial ancestor. One day we may be able to do the same for ichthyosaurs.” (2)

“...Carroll published his findings in 1981, commenting in his introduction:

In view of the previous lack of any definite information as to the origin of nothosaurs and plesiosaurs, it is a pleasure to be able to describe an extensive series of excellently preserved specimens that appear to be nearly ideal structural intermediates between ancestral terrestrial reptiles and the Mesozoic nothosaurs and plesiosaurs. ...”
(6)

“Do we have any fossils intermediate between Mixosaurus and an unspecialized land reptile?” (McGowan 1984) (2)

Utatsusaurus (Motani et al. 1998)
”Extinct marine reptile that shows features that are transitional between ancestral terrestrial amniotes and aquatic ichtyosaurs” (1)

Mosasaurukset/Käärmeliskot
“Their ancestry can be traced to primitive anguimorph lizards of the Late Jurassic or Early Cretaceous. The aigialosaurs, from the mid-Cretaceous of the Adriatic, provide an informative example of a transitional stage between habitually terrestrial lizards and the obligatory aquatic mosasaurs...” (Carroll 1997)
“The skeletons of ancestral, intermediate, and descendant forms are sufficiently well known that tabulations of nearly all character changes can be made over several periods of the transition” (DeBraga and Carroll 1993). (3)

“The pleurosaurs are an assemblage of aquatic diapsids that we know from the early Jurassic into the early Cretaceous...Most authors have allied them with sphenodontids...specimens from the Lower Jurassic (Carroll 1985) show an intermediate condition between the advanced forms and the early sphenodontids.” (Carrol 1988) (4)

Kenichthys Zhu M, Ahlberg PE. (2004) (5)
Pachyrhachis
“Primitive snake with limbs, transitional taxon linking snakes to an extinct group of lizard-like reptiles” Tchernov et al. (2000) (1)

Antetonitrus ingenipes
“A. Ingenipes appears to be the missing link between the sauropods and their mainly two-legged predecessors, the prosauropods.” (7)

“Neandertals seem to have originated among European populations of homo heidelbergensis; and middle pleistocene hominids, such as the 300,000 year old discoveries from Atapuerca, Spain...are often considered transitional between the two species...” (8)

“Although h.habilis has long been identified as the earliest member of our genus, there are some workers who argue that this species is perhaps best seen as an advanced australopithecine...” Fleagle (1998)
“A few anthropologists, however, consider that H. habilis would more properly be designated Australopithecus habilis. This demonstrates, not confusion, but the transitional nature of the fossil record.” (Berra 1990)
(9)

“The Pleistocene fossil record may in future solve the problem of how species originate. In the following instances the transition between two species is actually recorded:

Macaca florentina-M. sylvana
Felis issiodorensis-F. cf. pardina
Gulo schlosseri-G. gulo
Cuon majori-C. alpinus
Ursus minimus-U. etruscus
Ursus deningeri-U. spelaeus
Ursus etruscus-U. thibetanus ...”
Kúrten (1968) (10)

“At a higher taxonomic level, Rose and Brown (1984) documented evidence of progressive change between genera on the basis of over 600 specimens of primates collected from a 700-meter-thick sequence representing approximately 4 million years of the Eocene. One example is provided by marked changes in the dentition between Tetonius homunculus and Pseudotetonius ambiguus ...
There is no evidence of a change in evolutionary rate across the transition; it is smoothly gradational. Numerous character changes were noted...” (Carroll 1987)

Nanoparia
Lee (1996)
“Pareiasaur with a turtle-like rigid body; all osteoderms are united, forming a rigid covering over the entire dorsum” (1)

Microraptor
Xu et al. (2003)
“Bird-like four-winged dromaeosaurid that could glide, representing an intermediate stage between the flightless theropods and volant primitive birds such as Archaeopteryx.” (1)

“Evolution of the diatom Rhizosolenia...
About 3 million years ago, a single ancestral species split into two (Rhizosolenia praebergonii & R. bergonii) ; and there is a comprehensive fossil record at the time of the split.”
Ridley (1993) (11)

Jeholornis
“This bird is distinctively different from other known birds of the Early Cretaceous period in retaining a long skeletal tail with unexpected elongated prezygopophyses and chevrons, resembling that of dromaeosaurids, providing a further link between birds and non-avian theropods.”
Zhou Z, Zhang F (2002) (12)
Zhou Z, Zhang F (2003) (13)

“...examples of habitat shifts are seen in the fossil record in which at least some intermediate stages are known. Many different lineages of aquatic crocodiles evolved from terrestrial or semiaquatic ancestors, and numerous intermediate forms are known.” Carroll (1988)

Ambulocetus, Rodhocetus
Thewissen & Williams (2002)
“Connecting links between amphibious and terrestrial even-toed ungulates and aquatic whales”
(1)

Pezosiren
Domning (2001)
“Intermediate form of a primitive seacow with both terrestrial and aquatic adaptations” (1)

Sahelanthropus
Wood (2002)
“The most basal ape-like hominid. Mosaic of primitive (chimpanzee-like) and derived hominid features” (1)

Aegyptopithecus
“All living catarrhines are distinguished from platyrrhines by a suite of characters, including reduction of the premolar count from three to two in each quadrant, a connection of the frontal and sphenoid bone on the side wall of the skull, and a bony tube extending laterally from the ectotympanic ring. However, the early oligocene aegyptopithecus zeuxis shows an intermediate condition”
“Aegyptopithecus is indeed a missing link”
Fleagle (1998)

“Could there be such a program as stasis punctuated by periods of gradualism? ...
A 1984 Science article with the title “Species Formation through Punctuated Gradualism in Planktonic Foraminifera”
(Malmgren et al. 1984). … The authors write:

We propose the term “punctuated gradualism” for an evolutionary pattern of the type observed here in which populations are in stasis for long periods of time ... these periods are interrupted by relatively rapid, gradual phyletic transformations (species formations) without lineage splitting.”
(6)
“Another case study in which evolutionary transition from one species to another has been documented in detail comes from fossils of early primates of Paleocene and Eocene times.
... Gingerich summarizes the results in these words:

As shown, each sample of Cantius from successive stratigraphic levels is itself intermediate and transitional between earlier and later samples. There is relatively little change from one sample to the next, yet the net change over two million years or so of geological time is profound. Change is so gradual that the boundaries between successive species ... are necessarily arbitrary. Cantius ralstoni and its descendant C. trigonodus are linked by an insensibly graded sequence of transitional forms.”
(6)

“Eldredge and Gould (1972) agreed that a perfect fossil record would document morphological intermediates between species, but they suggested that many of these would exhibit relatively brief and geographically limited existences. Indeed, Eldredge had such a near perfect record of the evolution of the Devonian trilobite Phacops. It was a record of stepwise evolutionary change in only two brief periods during a span of eight million years!
One such interval was recorded in a single easy-to-miss quarry in New York State. This quarry contained perfect intermediates between the geographically widespread mother and daughter species.”
(6)

“Within the genus Elephas, species demonstrate continuous change over a period of 4.5 million years. Maglio (1973, p.81) stated;

Elephas recki is the best known species of Elephas from Africa; it can be traced through a progressive series of stages from an early form in the middle Pliocene of Kikagati to a rather progressive form in the middle Pleistocene of Bed IV at Olduvai Gorge. These stages pass almost imperceptibly into each other, as can be seen in the successive populations known from Kaiso, Omo, Laetolil, Koobi Fora and Illeret, Ouadi Derdemi, Olduvai, Kanjera and Ologesailie, among others. The molar teeth show progressive increase in the number of plates, their relative height and spacing, reduction in enamel thickness, increased folding of enamel and loss of the median loop on the wear figures. The skull shows all of the modifications already begun in E. ekorensis but here they are developed even further. On stratigraphic and faunal evidence the earliest stage of E. recki (Kikagati) would have been later than the latest record of E. ekorensis. At present, a direct phyletic relationship between E. ekorensis and E. recki seems certain.
In the late Pleistocene of Africa a more progressive elephant appears which I retain as a distinct species, Elephas iolensis, only as a matter of convenience. Although as a group, material referred to E. iolensis is distinct from that of E. recki, some intermediate specimens are known and E. iolensis seems to represent a very progressive, terminal stage in the E. recki specific lineage.

Attention to anatomical detail, rather than to taxonomic designation, shows that the elephants provide excellent evidence of significant morphological change within species, through species within genera, and through genera within a family. ...”
Carrol (1987)

“Anagenetic origin of species

Based on the great extent of morphological change, it has been customary to separate the lineage leading to modern muskrats into six species, belonging to two genera. The water rats are divided into eight species, also in two genera. This clearly exceeds the requirements for the evolution of one species into another in the Darwinian sense of phyletic evolution.”
Carroll (1997)

“... Archidiskodon planifrons-A. meridionalis ...”
Kúrten (1968)

“...from the gradual generic transition seen, for example, in going from from Plesiadapis to Platychoerops (Gingerich, 1976b), we might do well to wait until there is more evidence before hypothesizing special evolutionary mechanisms to explain sudden appearances in the fossil record.” (14)

“As in Simpson’s Ectocion example, there is no evidence for more than a single evolving lineage of Pelycodus in Sand Coulee through Gray Bull strata. However, in the upper levels, during Lysite and Lost Cabin time, there is clear evidence that species of two lineages of Pelycodus were present. Tracing these two distinct species, Pelycodus frugivorus and P. jarrovii back in time, they converge with Pelycodus abditus in size, mesostyle development, and every other character available for study, and there can be little doubt that each was derived from that species. A similar pattern is seen in the North American Paleocene Plesiadapidae, stratigraphically the best known family of primates.
Nannodectes, Chiromyoides, and two lineages of Plesiadapis can be traced back in the fossil record until each converges with a known species of known geological age (Gingerich, 1976b).
... these examples illustrate again the importance of gradual phyletic evolution within single lineages and the importance of this mechanism (anagenesis) in the origin of new species.”
(14)

“... Archidiskodon meridionalis-Palaeoloxodon antiquus ...”
Kúrten (1968)

”...adapoids and omomyids have traditionally been identified as eocene lemurs and tarsiers, respectively, both eocene families are more primitive in some respects than the recent prosimians.
... It seems quite clear from the paleontological record that the earliest adapids and omomyids were extremely similar ...
indeed, donrussellia has been allocated by some authorities to the omomyids and by others to the adapines. ...
Both are “missing links” that have phyletic affinities with the modern taxa and preserve information about more primitive morphological stages in primate evolution ...”
Fleagle (1998)

“...well-documented examples of progressive morphological change within species and genera are provided by Hürzeler (1962, mid-Cenozoic rabbits), Chaline and Laurin (1986, Plio-Pleistocene rodents), Fahlbusch (1983, Miocene rodents), Harris and White (1979, African suids from the Plio-Pleistocene), MacFadden (1985, hipparion horses), and Krishtalka and Stucky (1985, early Eocene artiodactyls). Harris and White (p. 89) observed:
“Many changes in size and morphological attributes in the various suid taxa appear to conform to simple Darwinian directional selection processes resulting in gradualistic change in population means and ranges through time.” Carroll (1987)
“Seven of the seventeen Quaternary elephant species can be documented as having arisen through anagenesis.” Carroll (1997)

“The most detailed and extensive study, which was designed specifically to test the model of punctuated equilibrium among fossil vertebrates, is that of Gingerich (1976) in the early Cenozoic of the Big Horn Basin in the Western United States. The genera Hyopsodus, Haplomylus, and Pelycodus have a rich fossil record in the Lower Eocene Willwood Formation, where approximately 3.5 million years of deposition are represented by 1500 meters of fluvial sediments. Morphometric analysis of molar teeth demonstrates both phyletic evolution and speciation. ... Study of hundreds of specimens from intervening levels demonstrated several continuous morphological series that can be divided into separate species only arbitrarily ...”

“The small species Hyopsodus loomisi became larger gradually through time, until it differed enough to be recognized as a different species H. latidens. H. “simplex” was another early species derived from H. loomisi. H. latidens apparently gave rise to both H. minor and H. miticulus, which in turn gave rise to H. lysitensis and H. powellianus.”
Carroll (1987)

Eusthenopteron foordi
“... an excellent transitional fossil ...”
Berra (1990)

“... Archidiskodon meridionalis-Mammuthus trogontherii ...”
Kúrten (1968)

“The gradual change through time and identifiable diversification has been shown with admirable clarity by Gingerich ... (1976 ... ) ...
Evolution of the primate genus Notharctus from Pelycodus”
(15)

Excalibosaurus
“appears to be intermediate between long-snouted ichthyosaurs like L. tenuirostris and Eurhinosaurus.”
(16)

“... Mammuthus trogontherii-M. primigenius ...”
Kúrten (1968)

“Evolutionists who lamented the imperfect state of the fossil record were treated in 1981 to the opening of an uncensored page of fossil history in Africa. Peter Williamson, a British paleontologist working in fossil beds 400 m deep near Lake Turkana, documented a remarkably clear record of speciation in freshwater snails. ... Thirteen lineages of snails show long periods of stability interrupted by relatively brief periods of rapid change in shell shape when snail populations diverged to produce new species that then remained unchanged through thick deposits before becoming extinct and being replaced by descendant species. The transitions occurred within 5000 to 50,000 years. In the few meters of sediment where speciation occurred, transitional forms were visible. Williamson’s study conforms well to the punctuated equilibrium model of Eldredge and Gould.” (17)

Australopithecus anamensis
“Many researchers believe that this species ... is an intermediate between A. ramidus and A. afarensis (Lucy).” (17)

“... Dicerorhinus megarhinus-D. etruscus ...“
Kúrten (1968)

Eosimias
(18)

“Additional work by Gingerich (1980) in a wider area of western North America that combines both late Paleocene and early Eocene sediments deposited over approximately 12.5 million years
documents 24 species that have arisen by phyletic evolution ...”
Carroll (1987)

“... Dama clactociana-D. dama ...”
Kúrten (1968)

“The maidenhair tree, or Ginkgo, is a gymnosperm that has been described as a 'living fossil' because it is known to have existed early in the Jurassic period 170 million years (Myr) ago, but a full understanding of its evolution has been impeded by a gap in the fossil record of more than 100 Myr — a crucial period during which the modern ovulate organs evolved from the Jurassic type. Here we describe a new Ginkgo fossil that was collected from the Lower Cretaceous fossil Lagerstätte (the Yixian Formation, which is over 121 Myr old) in China and which fills this gap. This missing link reveals that Ginkgo's reproductive structures at that time were more like those of the present-day Ginkgo biloba than those of the primitive Jurassic type, ...”
Zhou Z, Zheng S (2003)
(19)

“...scorpionflies (Mecoptera) and true flies (Diptera) have enough similarities that entomologists consider them to be closely related. Scorpionflies have four wings of about the same size, and true flies have a large front pair of wings but the back pair is replaced by small club-shaped structures. If Diptera evolved from Mecoptera, as comparative anatomy suggests, scientists predicted that a fossil fly with four wings might be found-and in 1976 this is exactly what was discovered...” (20)

“Ordovician trilobites show gradual evolutionary change” (21)
“In all eight genera, (Ogygiocarella, Nobiliasaphus, Ogyginus, Whittardolithus, Platycalymene, Cnemidopyge, Bergamia, Nileids (22) )
the average number of pygidial ribs increased through time, and in all eight the evolution was gradual ... a population at any one time was usually intermediate between the samples before and after it. There is one possible artifactual explanation for the result, and Sheldon was able to rule it out.” (21)
“In most of these lineages, the animals at the either end of the series had been assigned to different species names, and in one case they were assigned to different genera (Sheldon 1987). Thus the origin of higher taxa ... is documented by fossils.” (22)

“... Lagurus pannonicus-L. lagurus ...”
Kúrten (1968)

”Fossil spiders intermediate between Vectaraneus and Argyroneta are reviewed. ... (23)

“In a broader study, Kúrten (1968) stated that 25 of the 111 modern species of mammals that first appeared in Europe were linked to ancestral species by transitional forms. Barnosky (1987) noted that this does not necessarily indicate that the remaining 86 species arose suddenly ... but that the majority of species in question have still not been studied in detail.”
Carroll (1997)

“As more and more emphasis is placed on vertical or cladistic classification and as the fossil record improves, it will potentially be possible to allocate populations within a single species to different genera and even families or orders of descendant forms. There are already some instances among Cenozoic mammals where such subdivisions of ancestral species may be possible. Wilson (1971) described progressive evolution among primitive selenodont artiodactyls in which populations of early species give rise successively to members of different genera and different families. ...
The subsequent radiation of succesful ungulate orders such as the artiodactyls and perissodactyls in North America and the notoungulates in South America follow comparable patterns, as described by Krishtalka and Stucky (1986), Radinsky (1966), and Simpson (1948, 1967). Features that are initially variable within species become stabilized and amplified and come to be recognized as families and orders.”
Carroll (1987)

“...the fossil record offers little promise for extensive documentation of quantum speciation. Even so, one possible example has been reported (Ovcharenko, 1969). The two brachiopod species Kutchithyris acutiplicata and K. euryptycha are well represented in Jurassic deposits of the Soviet Union. In one small area, in a marly bed only 1 to 1.5 meters thick, transitional forms are found. The lower part of this bed contains only K. acutiplicata, and the upper part, only K. euryptycha. In the middle, there occur transitional forms, most of which are concentrated in a layer only about 100 centimeters thick. While the exact duration of the apparent speciation event is unknown, it must have been brief, and divergence was substantial. The species are distinct enough to have been regarded by one early worker, albeit a taxonomic splitter, as belonging to separate genera.”
(24)

“...finds made in southeast Asia, Ethiopia, Kenya, and Tanzania now permit reconstructing an almost unbroken chain from the oldest Australopithecus (afarensis) through A. africanus, Homo habilis, H. erectus, to Homo sapiens.”
(25)

“The Cretaceous amber ... is especially important in providing details of family-level transitions. ... example is the extinct family Jacopidae, which is defined from a Cretaceous amber nymph that is transitional between the families Cercopidae, the spittlebugs, and the Cicadelli, the leafhoppers (Ross et al., 1982). (26)

“...the ant Agroecomyrmex duisburgi is the "apparent connecting link" between two tribes of ants”
(Wilson et al., 1967).
(26)

“North American Bison

Bison entered North America from Eurasia in the early Pleistocene, and two species, Bison latifrons and B. Antiquus, were present
through much of the Pleistocene (McDonald 1981). The transition from the ancestral species B. Antiquus antiquus to modern B. bison bison took place rapidly between about 5.000 and 4.000 ky BP. J. McDonald (1981) measured skulls and limbs in large samples of ancestral B. a. Antiquus and descendant B. b. bison, which evidently changed little before and after this speciation event. According to McDonald, B. antiquus occidentalis is a possible intermediate present from about 10.000 to about 4.000 ky BP ...
McDonald (1981, p. 52) regarded speciation in Bison as conforming to the “punctuated equilibrium” concept ... “
(27)

Sphecomyrma freyi
”… a mid-Cretaceous ant, preserved in amber, appears to bridge the gap between modern ants and the wasps from which ants are thought to have arisen.”
Futuyma (1998)

“Prohylobates and and victoriapithecus are distinctly more primitive than all later old world monkeys in many aspects of their anatomy.They are missing links between early catarrhines and modern cercopithecids..."
Fleagle (1998)

Ichtyostega
SApsaravis ukhaana
” Fossil that fills a critical gap in avian evolution.”
Norell MA, Clarke JA (2001)
(29)

chad W (1993)
(28)

Acanthostega
Schad W (1993)

Referenssit:
1. Kutschera, U., Niklas, K. J. 2004 The modern theory of biological evolution: an expanded synthesis. Naturwissenschaften 91, 255 – 276.
2. Chris McGowan 1984 In the Beginning: A Scientist Shows Why the Creationists Are Wrong Prometheus Books
3. Robert Lynn Carroll 1997 Patterns and Processes of Vertebrate Evolution (Cambridge Paleobiology Series) Cambridge University Press
4. Robert L. Carroll 1987 Vertebrate Paleontology and Evolution W.H. Freeman & Company
5. Zhu M, Ahlberg PE. The origin of the internal nostril of tetrapods. Nature. 2004 Nov 4;432(7013):94-7.
6. Arthur N. Strahler 1987 Science and Earth History: The Evolution/Creation Controversy Prometheus Books
7. New Scientist Brontosaurus 'missing link' unearthed July 2003
8. John G. Fleagle Primate Adaptation and Evolution Academic Press; 2 edition 1998
9. Tim M. Berra Evolution and the Myth of Creationism: A Basic Guide to the Facts in the Evolution Debate Stanford University Press 1990
10. Björn Kúrten Pleistocene mammals of Europe Aldine Pub. Co 1968
11. Matt Ridley Evolution Blackwell. 1993
12. Zhou Z, Zhang F A long-tailed, seed-eating bird from the Early Cretaceous of China. Nature. 2002 Jul 25;418(6896):405-9.
13. Zhou Z, Zhang F Jeholornis compared to Archaeopteryx, with a new understanding of the earliest avian evolution. Naturwissenschaften. 2003 May;90(5):220-5.
14. A Hallam Patterns of evolution as illustrated by the fossil record Elsevier. 1977
15. Laurie R. Godfrey Scientists confront creationism W.W. Norton. 1983
16. Christopher McGowan The Dragon Seekers Abacus 2003
17. Cleveland Hickman Integrated Principles of Zoology. 12th ed. Mcgraw-Hill.
18. Northern Illinois University “Newly Discovered Fossils From China Shed Light On Common Ancestry Of Monkeys, Apes And Humans” 2000-03-17
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2000/03/0003170522 41.htm
19. Zhou Z, Zheng S (2003) The missing link in Ginkgo evolution. Nature 423:821-822
20. Philip Appleman, Charles Darwin Darwin, Third Edition (Norton Critical Editions) W. W. Norton & Company 2000
21. Mark Ridley Evolution Blackwell. 2003
22. Douglas J. Futuyma Evolutionary Biology Sinauer. 1998
23. Selden P. A. (2002) Missing links between Argyroneta and Cybaeidae revealed by fossil spiders. Journal of Arachnology 30(2), 189-200.
24. Steven M. Stanley Macroevolution: Pattern and Process Johns Hopkins University Press 1998
25. Ernst E. Mayr The Growth of Biological Thought: Diversity, Evolution, and Inheritance Belknap Press 1985
26. National Center for Science Education Creation/Evolution Issue 20 (Volume 7, Number 1 - Spring 1987)
27. Robert A. Martin, Anthony D. Barnosky Morphological Change in Quaternary Mammals of North America Cambridge University Press 1993
28. Schad W. Heterochronical patterns of evolution in the transitional stages of vertebrate classes. Acta Biotheor. 1993 Dec;41(4):383-9.
29. Norell MA, Clarke JA. Fossil that fills a critical gap in avian evolution. Nature. 2001 Jan 11;409(6817):181-4.

Further reading:
Roger J. Cuffey. 1972. Paleontologic evidence and organic creation. Journal of the American Scientific Affiliation.

http://www.asa3.org/ASA/PSCF/1972/JASA12-72Moore.html

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