Ihmisen historia pääasiallisena hedelmänsyöjänä?
Olemmeko tosiaan ensisijaisesti adaptoituneet hedelmänsyöjiksi?
Beef: It's Not What's For Dinner[/size:1z2w2djm]
In summary, meat is not a suitable item of diet for humans for the following physiological reasons:
1. Flesh eating animals have a short intestine and bowel enabling them to rapidly expel the putrefactive flesh, while humans have a long, complicated alimentary canal which enables plant nutrients to be slowly absorbed and assimilated;
2. Flesh eaters have a different type of intestinal bacterial flora than non-meat eaters (including humans);
3. Flesh eaters have long sharp teeth, whereas humans have the teeth of frugivores;
4. Humans can grind their jaw, but flesh-eaters cannot: their jaws move vertically only;
5. Humans sweat through their skin (as do other non meat-eaters such as horses, cows, monkeys, antelopes etc.) whereas flesh-eaters sweat through their tongues;
6. Humans suck their liquids, whereas carnivores lap their liquids;
7. Human saliva contains ptyalin (to commence starch digestion), whereas flesh-eaters have no ptyalin;
8. Flesh-eaters secrete 10 times the quantity of hydrochloric acid in to the stomach than does a human (at a concentration much greater as well). This enables carnivores to cope with ingested bone, flesh, feathers, sinews, etc. True meat-eaters take nourishment from practically the whole prey not just muscle and selected organ meat as do humans;
9. Carnivores have large livers to aid in detoxifying the blood, and to generate massive bile secretion, but humans have a comparatively small liver;
10. Carnivores generate the enzyme uricase to metabolize uric acid, a naturally occurring waste product in meat. Humans do not generate nor metabolize uricase. As a result, uric acid is absorbed, which leads to age-related disease. When humans started eating meat they did not over a period of thousands of years, develop fangs, claws, the ability to secrete uricase, or the concentrated hydrochloric acid solution which characterizes true carnivores. You need but examine the Eskimos who, perhaps, have eaten meat the longest to confirm this. Species adapt very slowly to changed environmental conditions. According to a continuous dietary study of 6,500 Chinese (see: The China Study) that began in 1983, nutritional biochemist T. Colin Campbell of Cornell University who is also a member of the National Academy of Sciences, concluded that humans are still a vegetarian species, and that only in the last few thousand years have meat and animal products become staples of the western diet. According to Dr. Campbell, "That's not nearly enough time to evolve new mechanisms to give us protection from these kinds of foods".
[size=150:1z2w2djm]Psyched Out Yet?[/size:1z2w2djm]
Even psychologically, we are not true carnivores. Natural meat-eaters stalk and pounce their prey after overtaking it with blinding bursts of speed. Carnivorous animals sink their fangs deeply into its flesh, crushing and killing it. The dead bloody prey is then ripped to shreds, the gory chunks swallowed with little mastication. Humans are not natural killers and do not psychologically savor these images, nor can they relish eating raw the animals blood, guts, bones, and organs. Humans instead cook their meat, which literally means they are eating burnt dead flesh because fire actually destroys living tissue. (For detail see: The Magic of Fresh Produce). Cooked meat has no relation to live food or to the living flesh of a freshly slaughtered animal. Live plants however, retain their form when picked for many days after. When they wilt, we do not eat them. Our mental disposition matches our true dietary disposition. Our aesthetic standards attribute beauty to colorful fruit and shady trees, not to bleeding, dying animals. Contrary to acquired perversions we do not naturally enjoy eating dead animals, bloody flesh, live insects, or raw woody grasses (grains). We savor fruit. In ascertaining our natural dietary equipment, you must envision us in a state of nature (rather than skyscrapers, freeways, and burger stands) where we once functioned totally with our natural provisions to acquire and eat foods. Stoves, microwaves, toasters, pots and pans were not furnished at birth as part of our natural equipment.
[size=150:1z2w2djm]Are We Natural Vegetarians?[/size:1z2w2djm]
The biological equipment of humans is such that the body is most capable of obtaining complete and optimal nutrition from plant foods. Actually however, we are NOT true vegetarians either. Many natural herbivores (horses, cows, sheep, etc.) that subsist on green leaves and grasses (ruminants) have four stomachs containing special enzymes including cellulase that can digest the carbohydrate cellulose, which is totally undigestible by humans. Leafy greens that make-up your salad are actually high calorie foods. Yet salad is a diet food that aids in weight loss. Most of the calories of vegetables are bound within cellulose, whose fuel value is largely unobtainable to our system (except for extremely valuable mineral matter from which our body does derive great benefit). True herbivores however, are fully capable of attaining energy from herbs and grasses since they secrete the enzyme cellulase, which breaks down and liberates the energy within the sugar molecule cellulose. Unlike purely natural vegetarians in nature then, the human stomach can not process large amounts of cellulose. Man cannot regurgitate and re chew his food as does the cow. Nor can the human stomach efficiently digest a mixture of all different types of foods as do true omnivores. Though nearly anything can be put into the human stomach and virtually has, our physiology is such that only foods that we are biologically adapted to can effectively be digested when eaten in compatible combinations according to the natural limitations of digestive chemistry (see: Food Combining).
[size=150:1z2w2djm]Science Verifies That Humans' Ancestors Were Frugivores[/size:1z2w2djm]
Recent research by anthropologists shows that we had an arboreal past. Our genetic ancestors were once tree dwellers. At that time, our genetic ancestors depended upon products of the tree, and later upon the fruits of stalk and vine for our sustenance. Dr. Alan Walker, an anthropologist of John Hopkins University in Maryland, has done research showing that early humans were once exclusively fruit eaters. By careful examination of fossil teeth and fossilized human remains with electron microscopes and other sophisticated tools, Dr. Walker and his colleagues are absolutely certain that early humans until relatively recently, were total fruitarians. These findings were reported in depth in the May 15, 1979 issue of the New York Times.
Kiinnostava vaikkakin poleeminen sivusto. Ostinkin jo pussillisen omenoita.
Pretending to be certain about propositions for which no evidence is even conceivable—is both an intellectual and a moral failing. —Sam Harris